Arnold, Smith, Winter win 2018 Nobel Chemistry Prize

CONNECT THE DOTS: Houston doctor wins Nobel Prize

CONNECT THE DOTS: Houston doctor wins Nobel Prize

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has chose to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018 with one half to Frances H. Arnold for "for the directed evolution of enzymes" and the other half jointly to George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter for "for the phage display of peptides and antibodies", read their statement.

"The other half of this year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry is shared by George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter".

Her work has made it possible to cut out the use of many toxic catalysts and has led to the development of enzymes for all manner of fields, including the development of biofuels and the production of pharmaceuticals.

Smith, 77, developed a method to evolve new proteins and Winter used the method to evolve antibodies, which are disease-fighting proteins in the blood.

The Nobel Prize in chemistry, which honors researchers for advances in studying how molecules combine and interact, is being announced Wednesday by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

The award was for chemistry, but the work has wide applications throughout biology and engineering. The scientists then test these generated enzymes and pinpoint which ones are the best at their job - sparking the reaction they're trying to achieve. 'This work has led to new chemical tools that can be used for everything from environmentally friendly detergents to the creation of new biofuels and pharmaceuticals'. In a nutshell, Arnold introduced genetic mutations into enzymes, and then looked to see what effect the mutations had.

"I can alter anything that's encoded in DNA", Arnold-the first woman, and eighth living scientist, to be elected to all three of the U.S. National Academies-told Science in 2008. Smith won for developing a phage display method where bacteriophages evolve the new proteins. Smith realised that this could be handy: for example if it wasn't known what protein a particular gene gave rise to, it could be put into a phage and the mystery protein would appear on the surface and could be identified.

This method has been used to create antibodies that can neutralize toxins such as that which causes anthrax and slows down an autoimmune disease called lupis, and even cure metastatic cancer.

'This year's nobel laureates have been able to direct evolution to make proteins with new and useful properties, ' said Claes Gustafsson, chairman of the Nobel committee for chemistry, at the announcement of the prize in Stockholm, Sweden.

Dr. Arnold and Dr. Smith are both American, while Dr.

On Monday, James P. Allison and Tsuku Honjo were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology/ Medicine for discovering that human body's immune system can be used to attack cancer cells.